Jumping Assessment

For the cinematic evaluation of the sport performance it's possible to use one or more jumping mats.
These mats are used to record contact time and fly time during a ballistic movement (jumping action) in order to evaluate the functional and neuromuscular features of the lower limb muscles.
The tests give specific indications to evaluate a person, to program the training workout and to monitor the progress.
The contact mat can be easily used in gymnasium and athletic circuit. 

RANGE OF TEST:
- Squat Jump
- Counter movement Jump
- Drop Jump
- Stiffness Test
- Multi Jump
- Dyna Jump

 

1 - SQUAT JUMP: Explosive force assessment, UM recruitment, evaluation of the % FT

The Squat Jump allows to estimate, from the elevation, the capability of the inferior limbs to express explosive force.

The elevation is obtained from the flight time of the subject with the formula:h=t2 x 1,226

In this test the subject stand on the center of a platform in 1/2 squat position (both knee bended at 90°), with trunk erected and the hands at waist, to perform a vertical jump.
The athlete has to carry out this test without countermovement in order to avoid the storage of elastic energy.
The takeoff and the landing must be performed with legs and feet completely extended.
After the landing it is advisable to carry outother little rebounds on toes 

 

Squat Jump

 

 

2 - Conter Movement Jump: Index of reuse of elastic energy, intra/inter-muscular coordination.


The activation mode is concentric and it is preceded by an eccentric activity.
Elasticity index = ((CMJ-SJ)/SJ)100

The CMJ is a test in which the jumping action is performed thanks to the strengthening and shortening of the elastic elements of the muscle. 
Standing on the contact mat in erected position, with legs extended and both hands on hips, the athlete has to perform a vertical jump after a rapid counter movement with the knees 90° bent. 
During the counter movement the trunk must be erected to avoid any possible influence on the lower limbs performance. 
In the downward movement the extensors are activated only during the inversion movement: this means that the strengthening of the elastic elements and the subsequent reuse of elastic energy is very limited.

 

CM Jump

 

3 - Multi Jump: ANAEROBIC ALACTACID/LACTACID  POWER 

This test allows to estimate the mechanical power and the anaerobic lactacid and alactacid metabolism during consecutive jumps. 
It consists of repeated jumps with countermovement for a variable time (5"-60") or for a specific number of jumps to be set.

The mechanical power can be calculated with the following  formula: 

Power = (tv2g2)/(4Tc)
P =  power in watt x kg of weight
G = acceleration of gravity (9,81 m/s-2)


The test consists in executing without interruption jumps with countermovement, both knee bent at 90° and hands at the waist.
The parameters of reference are the average height (cm) or the average mechanical power (W x Kg) developed during the test.
The more used test previews a duration of 15"  in order to estimate the capability to produce power using the CP-ATP system (anaerobic alactacid metabolism .
With tests that last from 30 to 60 second we evaluate the fatigue resistance, in particular the distribution of anaerobic lactacid power and the loss of elastic energy production.


Multi Jump

 

4 - Drop Jump: IDENTIFICATION OF THE OPTIMAL HEIGHT OF BOUNCE

It is an important test to evaluate the “REFLEX ELASTIC EXPLOSIVE” expression of the force produced by lower limbs and quadriceps in particular. 

This test consists of a vertical jump to perform after a fall from a predetermined height.
After the impact the subject must jump upward with the maximum power.
The test foreseen 5 falls from steps of 20-40-60-80-100 cm in order to identify the optimum height of fall or the BDJ (the best drop jump).

On the contrary of CMJ, in this test we have a strong effect of the stretching reflex, that produce a massive recruitment of UM, and a greater elastic deformation that allow to store and reuse a great amount of elastic energy.

 

Drop Jump

 

5 - Stiffness Test: CAPABILITY OF REACTIVE FORCE

It is a fundamental test to evaluate the amount of reactive force. 
It is a valid alternative to the drop Jump, and it is simple and easy to perform.  
The athlete has to perform a series of consecutive jumps on the platform with the maximum intensity. During the jump the legs are extended and the arms free in order to allow the best coordination.
This test, that stimulates the neuromuscular reactivity and the muscle-tendon-bones system, allows to evaluate the reactive component of the extensor's force of lower limbs.
The performance is evaluated calculatinge flight time, contact time and the average mechanical power (W) developed during the test.
 
From the obtained data we can calculate:
THE PERFORMANCE OF THE REACTIVE FORCE (Kevin) = JH/CT
THE REACTIVE CAPABILITY (Verkoshansky) = FH/DH (h drop jump)
 
The average of the developed mechanical power can be calculated with the formula: 
Power = (tv2g2)/(4Tc)
P =  power in watt x kg of weight
G = acceleration of gravity (9,81 m/s-2)
 
Stiffness Test
 
 

6 - Dyna Test

Test that uses a double force platform synchronized to evaluate both limbs separately. 

Towards a special analysis of the recorded force signal, the test allows to go along and interpret with a “rehabilitative” viewpoint the sequence of the different neuromuscular activation patterns that follow one another during the typical ballistic movements “the jump”.
 
 
Dyna Test

 

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